In case you want to build a robot with a PC based controller there a lot of possibilities. You can use commercial software or you can choose Free or Open source platforms. This article describes a few frameworks or software libraries. Of course this list is not complete. If I forgot your favorite platform, let me know.
The Player project is an open source network server for robot control. It provides a simple interface to the sensors and actuators over the IP network (TCP). Player runs on Linux, Solaris and BSD variants. The Player project is aligned with Stage and Gazebo Simulators. The Player project supports 914 PC BOT, Amigobot, Clodbuster, ER 1, ERRATIC, ERSDK robots, Garcia, Khephera, NOMAD200, Obot d100, Pioneer, RFLEX, RMP (Segway), Roomba. The Player project is released under the GNU General Public License.
URBI ( Universal Real-time Behavior Interface) is an platform based on its own scripted language. The platform has a client/server architecture. The main features are simplicity, modular, parallel control, event based programming and is optimized for speed. URBI can be used with Aibo, Boe-Bot, Boiloid, Create, ER 1, KHR2, Mindstorms NXT, Nao, Pleo, RBT-1, Robonova, and Spykee. The platform comes with and SDK and URBI is free for educational use and hobbyist.
RoboRealm is an windows oriented application and is focused on processing video images for use in robotic applications. The main feature is the image processing pipeline which contain the filters to get the result you want. You can use VBscript to take action on the filtered images. RoboRealm is an commercial product now, but you can use it for 30 days after registration. The software before version 2.0.0 is free. I did some experimenting myself.
Marilou Robotics Studio
Microsoft Robotic Studio